Kenya 2016

Uganda wants ‘paying for sex’ made a crime

Uganda’s Directorate of Ethics and Integrity wants to amend the Penal Code to make it criminal to pay for sex.

Currently, the law is silent on people who procure the services of sex workers and only punishes those who provide it.

State Minister for Ethics and Integrity Fr Simon Lokodo said it was unfair to punish only those who offer sex for money or other material benefits and let the ones who procure the services go free. This, he said, is the reason why sex work has been growing in the country over the years.

“If there are no buyers, these sex workers are not going to be in the cold all night. So now my ministry is already working to amend the law so that it can impose an equally harsh punishment on those who procure the services of these people,” explained Fr Lokodo.

Sex work is illegal in Uganda and offenders face up to seven years in jail on conviction, according to section 139 of the Penal Code.

However, the law does not spell out any punishment for those who procure the services of sex workers.

The Penal Code Act 1950 (138 & 139) defines a sex worker as a person who, in public or elsewhere, regularly or habitually holds himself or herself out as available for sexual intercourse or other sexual gratification for monetary or other material gain. Because it is illegal, Fr Lokodo said, the practice is not considered “work”.

On several occasions, police have arrested sex workers on the streets or from brothels and taken them to court, where magistrates usually impose a small fine on them.

Often, the majority will return to the streets and continue with their business.

“The law will help us, especially if the people who have bought the services of the sex workers are caught in the act. Our biggest challenge has always been to get the proof,” explained Fr Lokodo.

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Morocco 2014

Amnesty International: Sex Slavery Pushes ISIS Victims to Commit Suicide

A recent report from rights group Amnesty International said that Iraqi women and girls forced into sexual slavery by so-called “Islamic” State of Iraq and Syria terrorists have committed suicide or tried to do so.

The London-based rights group said on Tuesday, women faced torture, rape, forced marriage and were “sold” or given as “gifts” to ISIL militants or their supporters in Iraq and Syria.

“Hundreds of (Iraqi) women and girls have had their lives shattered by the horrors of sexual violence and sexual slavery in ISIL captivity,” Amnesty’s Senior Crisis Response Adviser, Donatella Rovera, said in a statement.

“Many of those held as sexual slaves are children, girls aged 14, 15 or even younger,” Rovera added.

Sudan 2016

When Women are Few, Men Settle Down

Women want to settle down while men prefer to play the field, right? Not quite, said a study Wednesday that challenged long-held views of sexual selection. It turns out the dynamics of sex are partly driven by the law of supply and demand: a man's fidelity depends to a large degree on the number of available women.

"When women are rare, men respond by desiring long-term committed relationships with a single partner," University of Utah anthropologist and study lead author Ryan Schacht told AFP. "When women are hard to find, the best strategy is to find one and stick with her."

women settle, Sudan

Men who continue skirt-chasing when competition among men is high, essentially risk losing out altogether, said Schacht: "If a man were not to live up to a woman's expectations, she has plenty other options to choose from!" The findings, published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, are based on a 16-month study of members of the 13,000-strong Makushi tribal community of hunters, fishermen and farmers in southwest Guyana. Extended families live in villages of 160 to 750 people and premarital sex is seen as a normal part of partner-finding before settling down in a monogamous marriage.

Makushi gender relations are egalitarian, according to the study authors. During 2010-2011, Schacht and his wife Jacque spent months building a rapport with the tribe before doing confidential interviews with 300 men and women, aged 18 to 45, in eight communities with sex ratios ranging from 90 to 140 men for every 100 women.

Questions included:
- how many sexual partners have you had in the past year?
- how many do you expect to have in the coming five years?
- do you enjoy casual sex?
- is sex without love acceptable and enjoyable? The Makushi were chosen because they form a homogenous group that shares a belief system and socio-economic circumstances, which meant religious and cultural differences would not colour the results. "In general, Makushi men show a greater willingness to engage in uncommitted sex than do women, as the stereotype predicts," said Schacht.

"Men, when women were abundant, were the cads we often expect them to be. They had many sexual partners, and yet still wanted more!" But this changed in areas where men were in the majority. "As the sex ratio became more male-biased, men's interest in short-term relationships waned," said Schacht. "In fact, in the communities with the most surplus men, men's and women's preferences were indistinguishable -- both men and women desired long-term, committed relationships with a single partner." - Sexual stereotypes 'inappropriate' -

Women's preference for a committed relationship did not change, the researchers found. Why? "Short-term, uncommitted relationships are potentially costly" for women, for whom the physical and time investment in procreation, as carriers and rearers of children, is a lot bigger than for men. Some of the results were surprising, said the team, for example contradicting the conventional view that when men outnumber women there are likely to be more fights among men and an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. But mainly, they challenge the commonly-held view of gender roles that stems from Charles Darwin's near 150-year-old theory of sexual selection -- essentially a picture of choosy, coy females and ardent, promiscuous males. "It's time to move away from stereotyped assumptions of men having certain behaviours and women having others," said Schacht. The message "is that sexual stereotyping of what is 'male' or 'female' behaviour based on biological sex differences is largely inappropriate," he added.

"Sex matters, culture matters, partner availability matters." The study may hold interesting social data for Asian countries where a preference for male offspring has led to a majority of men over women in certain age groups.

But the findings may not apply to all communities, said Schacht -- potentially influenced by differences in culture, religion and socio-economic status.

"The global story is likely to be a bit more complicated," he said, and in patriarchal societies, for example, a gender ratio favouring men may intensify male sexual control over women. "But I think that, in general, in areas where women are largely free to choose their partners, a male-biased sex ratio increases their (women's) bargaining power in the market."

Afghanistan 2015

Different Reasons Behind Violence Against Women In Afghanistan

Saturday March 7, 2015

Kabul (BNA) Violence is a world that upon hearing it in Afghanistan, immediately and unintentionally woman is associated in one’s mind. Namely the women have been tied to violence in such a way as if these two phenomena are inseparable.

Unfortunately, most Afghan women are suffering due to gender, psychological, social, cultural and family violence. It is enough to be a woman or girl. Terror and violence don’t recognize and distinguish small or big among the women. As we have witnessed rapping of a six months old baby. This innocent baby was raped by her father. In recent years, many young, old and teenaged women and girls have been victimized by this evil. This issue should be deliberated that how a father, husband, brother or brother-in-law and other close relatives of women dare to disrespect female members of their families and trample down their legal and natural rights. While based on Islamic principles and moral and legal norms, these individuals should be advocates of their close female relatives’ rights. The main reasons behind violation of women rights and violence against women are as following:

1. Poverty and unemployment are the major reasons of violence against women in Afghanistan. Poverty makes families to commit any crime against humanity or violence against women especially among poor and destitute families.

2. Illiteracy is another factor which has effective role on a phenomenon called violence against women. Over seventy percent of the Afghan people are illiterate. Due to this reason, most people are unaware on women rights and role and consider women unwise and a secondary sex which has caused the illiterate women to fail to defend their legal and natural rights and be victimized by their own and others’ ignorance and unawareness.

3. Non-punishment of women rights violators: In the last years, the worst violence cases took place against women but less violator of women rights were punished.

4. Unacceptable traditions and superstitious believes have also caused women to be victimized. As many men and even women believe that women should not work outside home, women should be educated; women should not be involved in socio, political activities. Women should obey unconditionally decisions of men.

Taking into account the ground realities related to violence against women in Afghanistan, nowadays what has changed this to a bleeding wound, is chanting of the so-called slogans. For over fourteen years, more than hundreds institutions, organizations and NGOs with multi-million dollar funds and budgets plus generous foreign aids have been involved in advocating and improvement of women rights in Afghanistan, but they have failed to take a real and practical step in this direction. Majority of these bodies that unfortunately women are leading some of them, have been involved in making wealth under the pretext of women rights advocating, which is itself another corruption and paving the way for expansion of violence against women. Wherever, in a corner of the country, violence takes place against innocent women and reflected by media, most of these women rights advocates and organizations, chant empty and so-called slogans and condemn it. Or some of the women rights advocates attend media round-tables and condemn it, and after few days everything is forgotten as if nothing has happened. Nevertheless, the NUG should seek a reasonable solution for reduction of this nasty phenomenon and implement it. Lailuma Noori

Uganda wants ‘paying for sex’ made a crime

Higher testosterone help

Life is reproductive behavior and its logistics

Amnesty International: Sex Slavery Pushes ISIS Victims to Commit Suicide

When Women are Few, Men Settle Down

Different Reasons Behind Violence Against Women In Afghanistan

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